Joint Authors: Aditya Taneja, Ulrich Klapper (OMICRON Electronics)

A circuit breaker is an electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. It is also used to isolate part of a healthy circuit for regular maintenance. Its operation can therefore be both automatic and manual. Its basic function is to immediately discontinue electrical flow. The circuit breaker plays a significant role within the power system....

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PnuPower has used its extensive knowledge of battery free UPS systems to develop an extended power system that integrates a diesel generator and an industrial UPS into a single integrated system designed to be placed outside. The Extended Power System (EPS) has the option of eliminating batteries with the use of ultra-capacitors and can offer runtimes of up to 100 hours.

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Roxtec Ltd requested EA Technology to produce a report on the causes and effects of humidity within indoor substation environments and methods of mitigating these factors. This report briefly explains relative humidity and partial discharge, and the effect of high relative humidity on the inception or level of partial discharge. The report covers the environmental factors in switchgear design standards and the manufacturer’s literature. The report covers best practice for the design of substations and internal environment control, the factors affecting the environment within a substation and methods of mitigating these factors. This report demonstrates why it is extremely important to control the substation environment and this can be achieved by minimising moisture ingress into substations and controlling the temperature and humidity within the building.

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While many who invest in Data Center Infrastructure Management (DCIM) software benefit greatly, some do not. Research has revealed a number of pitfalls that end users should avoid when evaluating and implementing DCIM solutions. Choosing an inappropriate solution, relying on inadequate processes, and a lack of commitment / ownership / knowledge can each undermine a chosen toolset’s ability to deliver the value it was designed to provide. This paper describes these common pitfalls and provides practical guidance on how to avoid them.

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High density IT equipment stresses the power density capability of modern data centers. Installation and unmanaged proliferation of this equipment can lead to unexpected problems with power and cooling infrastructure including overheating, overloads, and loss of redundancy. The ability to measure and predict power and cooling capability at the rack enclosure level is required to ensure predictable performance and optimize use of the physical infrastructure resource. This paper describes the principles for achieving power and cooling capacity management.

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How can you avoid making major mistakes when operating and maintaining your data center(s)? The key lies in the methodology behind your operations and maintenance program. All too often, companies put immense amounts of capital and expertise into the design of their facilities. However, when construction is complete, data center operations are an afterthought. This whitepaper explores the top ten mistakes in data center operations.

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Simple and rapid deployment of self-contained, high-density pods within an existing or new low-density data center is possible with today’s power and cooling technology. The independence of these high-density pods allow for predictable and reliable operation of high-density equipment without a negative impact on the performance of existing low-density power and cooling infrastructure. A side benefit is that these high-density pods operate at much higher electrical efficiency than conventional designs. Guidance on planning design, implementation, and predictable operation of high-density pods is provided.

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The historic method of specifying data center power density using a single number of watts per square foot (or watts per square meter) is an unfortunate practice that has caused needless confusion as well as waste of energy and money. This paper demonstrates how the typical methods used to select and specify power density are flawed, and provides an improved approach for establishing space requirements, including recommended density specifications for typical situations.

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Both hot-air and cold-air containment can improve the predictability and efficiency of traditional data center cooling systems. While both approaches minimize the mixing of hot and cold air, there are practical differences in implementation and operation that have significant consequences on work environment conditions, PUE, and economizer mode hours. The choice of hot-aisle containment over cold-aisle containment can save 43% in annual cooling system energy cost, corresponding to a 15% reduction in annualized PUE. This paper examines both methodologies and highlights the reasons why hot-aisle containment emerges as the preferred best practice for new data centers.

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This paper presents a detailed quantitative efficiency comparison between the most efficient DC and AC power distribution methods, including an analysis of the effects of power distribution efficiency on the cooling power requirement and on total electrical consumption. The latest high efficiency AC and DC power distribution architectures are shown to have virtually the same efficiency, suggesting that a move to a DC-based architecture is unwarranted on the basis of efficiency.

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Planning of a data center physical infrastructure project need not be a time consuming or frustrating task. Experience shows that if the right issues are resolved in the right order by the right people, vague requirements can be quickly translated into a detailed design. This paper outlines practical steps to be followed that can cut costs by simplifying and shortening the planning process while improving the quality of the plan.

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Business executives are challenging their IT staffs to convert data centers from cost centers into producers of business value. Data centers can make a significant impact to the bottom line by enabling the business to respond more quickly to market demands. This paper demonstrates, through a series of examples, how data center infrastructure management software tools can simplify operational processes, cut costs, and speed up information delivery.

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